Surveillance is for small cancer lesions found during screening that are usually then monitored by a
physician, with a follow-up every three months.
Surgical options for liver cancer are either resection (removal of the tumor with surgery) or a liver
transplant. If all of the cancer in the liver is completely removed, that provides the best outlook.
is surgery to remove only part of the liver. People with good liver function who
are healthy enough for surgery and who have a single tumor that has not grown into blood vessels
can have this operation.
Ablation is treatment that destroys liver tumors without removing them. This procedure can be used in
patients with a few small tumors and when surgery is not a good option (often because of poor health or
reduced liver function)
uses a high-frequency electric current to kill tumor cells. External-beam
radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill tumor cells.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays (or particles) to kill cancer cells. It may not be a good option for
some patients whose liver has been greatly damaged by diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis.
Embolization is a procedure that injects substances directly into an artery in the liver to block or
reduce the blood flow to a tumor in the liver. Here are three types of this approach:
Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE)
is usually the first type of embolization used for large liver
cancers that cannot be treated with surgery or ablation. It combines embolization with
chemotherapy (chemo). Most often, this is done by giving chemotherapy through the catheter.
Drug-eluting bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE)
combines TACE embolization with drug-eluting
beads (tiny beads that contain a chemotherapy drug). The procedure is essentially the same as
TACE except that the artery is blocked after drug-eluting beads are injected.
combines embolization with radiation therapy. This is done by injecting small
beads (called microspheres) into the hepatic artery. These microspheres have a radioactive
isotope (yttrium-90 or Y-90) attached to them.
Chemotherapy refers to a type of medicine that causes rapidly dividing cells, like cancer cells, to die.
Immunotherapy is the use of medicines that help a person’s own immune system find and destroy cancer cells.
Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets proteins either from inside or outside of the cancer cells to control how they grow, divide, and spread.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)
are small-molecule drugs that go through the cell membrane and work inside cancer cells to block signals that cancer cells need to grow and divide.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)
are man-made versions of immune system proteins (antibodies) that are designed to recognize and attach to a specific target protein outside of the cancer cell, usually on its surface.
Supportive (palliative) care
Supportive care for people with cancer can include relieving side effects and symptoms of the disease
and its treatments, and may also include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, and